3. The Command-Line Test Runner

The PHPUnit command-line test runner can be invoked through the phpunit command. The following code shows how to run tests with the PHPUnit command-line test runner:

./tools/phpunit tests/ArrayTest.php
PHPUnit 11.2.0 by Sebastian Bergmann and contributors.

Runtime:       PHP 8.2.2

..                                                                  2 / 2 (100%)

Time: 00:00.077, Memory: 10.00 MB

OK (2 tests, 2 assertions)

When invoked as shown above, the PHPUnit command-line test runner will look for a ArrayTest.php source code file in the current working directory, load it, and expect to find an ArrayTest test case class. It will then run the tests found in that class.

Outcome and Issues

PHPUnit separates the outcome (errored, failed, incomplete, skipped, or passed) of a test from the issues (considered risky, triggered a warning, …) of a test.

With regard to outcome, PHPUnit distinguishes between failures and errors. A test fails when an assertion failed. This is different from an unexpected exception or a PHP error that occur while a test is running. When this happens, the test errors.

Errors tend to be easier to fix than failures. If you have a big list of problems, it is best to tackle the errors first and see if you have any failures left when they are all fixed.

For each test run, the PHPUnit command-line tool prints one character to indicate progress:

.

Printed when a successful test has no issues

F

Printed when an assertion fails while running the test method

E

Printed when an error occurs while running the test method

W

Printed when the test triggered a warning

R

Printed when the test has been considered risky (see Risky Tests)

D

Printed when the test triggered a deprecation

N

Printed when the test triggered a notice

I

Printed when the test is marked as incomplete (see Incomplete Tests)

S

Printed when the test was skipped (see Skipping Tests)

Command-Line Options

Configuration

--bootstrap <file>

Configures a PHP script that is included before the tests run. For common use cases, this script should not do more than register an autoloader so that PHP can find the tested units of code.

-c|--configuration <file>

Configure PHPUnit’s test runner using an XML configuration file. This is not required when the configuration file that is to be used is located in the current working directory and is named phpunit.xml, phpunit.dist.xml, or phpunit.xml.dist.

--no-configuration

Do not use an XML configuration named phpunit.xml, phpunit.dist.xml, or phpunit.xml.dist that is located in the current working directory.

--no-extensions

Do not load PHPUnit test runner extensions from PHP archives (PHARs) from a directory that is configured in the XML configuration file. Do not bootstrap PHPUnit test runner extensions that are configured in the XML configuration file.

--include-path <path(s)>

Prepend PHP’s include_path with given path(s).

-d <key[=value]>

Set a PHP configuration setting (php.ini).

--cache-directory <dir>

Configure a directory where the PHPUnit test runner can cache data such as test results (required for reordering tests based on previous failures, for instance) or information about tested code as well as test code generated using static analysis (significantly improves performance of code coverage analysis, for instance).

--generate-configuration

Generate an XML configuration file with best practice defaults.

--migrate-configuration

Migrate an XML configuration file from a previous version’s format to the current format.

Selection

--list-suites

List available test suites as defined in the XML configuration file. See Composing a Test Suite Using XML Configuration for an example.

--testsuite <name>

Only run tests from the specified list of comma-separated test suites that are defined in the XML configuration file. See Composing a Test Suite Using XML Configuration for an example.

--exclude-testsuite <name>

Run all tests except for those from the specified list of comma-separated test suites that are defined in the XML configuration file.

--list-groups

List available test groups. Tests can be put into multiple test groups using the attributes PHPUnit\Framework\Attributes\Group, PHPUnit\Framework\Attributes\Small, PHPUnit\Framework\Attributes\Medium, PHPUnit\Framework\Attributes\Large, and PHPUnit\Framework\Attributes\Ticket.

--group <name>

Only run tests from the specified list of comma-separated test groups.

--exclude-group <name>

Run all tests except for those from the specified list of comma-separated test groups.

--covers <name>

Only run tests that intend to cover <name> and use code coverage metadata such as PHPUnit\Framework\Attributes\CoversClass to document this.

--uses <name>

Only run tests that intend to use <name> and use code coverage metadata such as PHPUnit\Framework\Attributes\UsesClass to document this.

--list-tests

Print a list of tests.

--list-tests-xml <file>

Write a list of tests in XML format to a file.

--filter <pattern>

Filter which tests to run using pattern matching on the test name. --filter <pattern> may be used multiple times and then combines the individual filters into a single filter using a logical and.

--test-suffix <suffixes>

Only search for tests in files with specified suffix(es). Default: Test.php, .phpt.

Execution

Isolation

--process-isolation

Run each test in a separate PHP process.

--globals-backup

Backup global and super-global variables before each test, restore them after each test.

--static-backup

Backup static properties of classes before each test, restore them after each test.

Risky Tests

--strict-coverage

Be strict about code coverage metadata. See Unintentionally Covered Code for more details.

--strict-global-state

Be strict about changes to global state. See Global State Manipulation for more details.

--disallow-test-output

Be strict about output during tests. See Output During Test Execution for more details.

--enforce-time-limit

Enforce time limit based on test size. See Test Execution Timeout for more details.

--default-time-limit <sec>

Timeout in seconds for tests that have no declared size. See Test Execution Timeout for more details.

--dont-report-useless-tests

Do not report tests that do not test anything. See Useless Tests for more details on the default behaviour.

Automatically stop when …

--stop-on-defect

Stop execution upon first that errored, failed, that triggered a warning, or that was considered risky.

--stop-on-error

Stop execution upon first that errored.

--stop-on-failure

Stop execution upon first that failed.

--stop-on-warning

Stop execution upon first that triggered a warning.

--stop-on-risky

Stop execution upon first that was considered risky.

--stop-on-deprecation

Stop execution upon first that triggered a deprecation (E_DEPRECATED, E_USER_DEPRECATED, or PHPUnit deprecation).

--stop-on-notice

Stop execution upon first that triggered a notice (E_STRICT, E_NOTICE, or E_USER_NOTICE).

--stop-on-skipped

Stop execution upon first that was skipped.

--stop-on-incomplete

Stop execution upon first that was marked as incomplete.

Exit with error code when …

--fail-on-warning

Exit with a shell exit code that signals failure even when all tests passed but at least one test triggered a warning.

--fail-on-risky

Exit with a shell exit code that signals failure even when all tests passed but at least one test was considered risky.

--fail-on-deprecation

Exit with a shell exit code that signals failure even when all tests passed but at least one test triggered a deprecation (E_DEPRECATED, E_USER_DEPRECATED, or PHPUnit deprecation).

--fail-on-notice

Exit with a shell exit code that signals failure even when all tests passed but at least one test triggered a notice (E_STRICT, E_NOTICE, or E_USER_NOTICE).

--fail-on-incomplete

Exit with a shell exit code that signals failure even when all tests passed but at least one test was marked as incomplete.

--fail-on-skipped

Exit with a shell exit code that signals failure even when all tests passed but at least one test was skipped.

Test Result Cache

--cache-result

Write test results to cache file. This is required for reordering tests based on previous failures, for instance.

--do-not-cache-result

Do not write test results to cache file.

Test Order

--order-by <order>

Reorder tests using <order> strategy before running them. <order> can be a comma-separated list of default, defects, depends, duration, no-depends, random, reverse, and size.

--random-order-seed <N>

Use the specified random seed when running tests in random order.

Reporting

Console

--colors <flag>

Use colors in output (never, auto, or always)

--columns <n>

Number of columns to use for progress output.

--columns max

Use maximum number of columns for progress output.

--stderr

Write to php://stderr instead of php://stdout.

Progress and Result Printing

--no-progress

Disable output of test execution progress.

--no-results

Disable output of test results.

--no-output

Disable all output.

Details about Issues

--display-incomplete

Display details for incomplete tests.

--display-skipped

Display details for skipped tests.

--display-deprecations

Display details for deprecations triggered by tests.

--display-errors

Display details for errors triggered by tests.

--display-notices

Display details for notices triggered by tests.

--display-warnings

Display details for warnings triggered by tests.

--reverse-list

Print defects in reverse order.

Alternative Output

--teamcity

Replace default progress and result output with TeamCity format.

--testdox

Replace default result output with TestDox format.

Logging

--log-junit <file>

Write test results in JUnit XML format to file.

--log-teamcity <file>

Write test results in TeamCity format to file.

--testdox-html <file>

Write test results in TestDox format (HTML) to file.

--testdox-text <file>

Write test results in TestDox format (plain text) to file.

--log-events-text <file>

Stream events as plain text to file.

--log-events-verbose-text <file>

Stream events as plain text (with telemetry information) to file.

--no-logging

Ignore logging configured in the XML configuration file.

Code Coverage

--coverage-clover <file>

Write code coverage report in Clover XML format to file.

--coverage-cobertura <file>

Write code coverage report in Cobertura XML format to file.

--coverage-crap4j <file>

Write code coverage report in Crap4J XML format to file.

--coverage-html <dir>

Write code coverage report in HTML format to directory.

--coverage-php <file>

Write serialized code coverage data to file.

--coverage-text=<file>

Write code coverage report in text format to file (default: php://stdout).

--coverage-xml <dir>

Write code coverage report in XML format to directory.

--warm-coverage-cache

Warm cache for static analysis that is needed for code coverage reporting.

--coverage-filter <dir>

Include <dir> in code coverage reporting.

--path-coverage

Report path coverage in addition to line coverage.

--disable-coverage-ignore

Disable metadata for ignoring code coverage.

--no-coverage

Ignore code coverage reporting configured in the XML configuration file.

Miscellaneous

-h|--help

Prints usage information.

--version

Prints the version and exits.

--atleast-version <min>

Checks that version is greater than <min> and exits.

--check-version

Check whether PHPUnit is the latest version and exits.